Α-toxin causes degradation of internucleosomal DNA in T lymphocytes by forming small transmembrane pores. Many cell types are sensitive to cytolysis by α toxin. Under certain conditions, nucleated cells can be treated with α-toxin without causing lysis. Under controlled conditions, the α-toxin monomers bind to the cell membrane and form a hexamer, which functions as a hydrophilic pore with a diameter of 1-3 nm. The cell becomes permeable to small molecules, while large molecules, such as enzymes or carbohydrates, are excluded.
The molecular weight limit of the material that passes through the pore is approximately 2-4 kDa. The pore is somewhat selective to ions. Other agents commonly used to permeabilize cells form large membrane lesions, making them permeable to macromolecules. Α-toxin has been used to introduce ions, substrates, inhibitors, nucleotides, and other pharmacological agents into cells, thus regulating cell physiology or function.
For example, the arachidonic acid cascade (and subsequent production of prostaglandin I2) is triggered by α-toxin and PMNs in endothelial cells when pores are formed that allow passive entry of Ca2 +. It stimulates the synthesis of prostaglandins and improves the phosphorylation of myelin basic protein.
A monomer isolated from Staphylococcus aureus strain Wood 46 and purified by a modification of the methods of Harshman, et al. And Hohman. It stimulates the synthesis of prostaglandins and the phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. It causes the degradation of internucleosomal DNA in T lymphocytes by forming small transmembrane pores. Alpha Toxin, CAS 12616-52-3, is an isolated and purified major cytotoxin from Staphylococcus aureus strain Wood 46. At low concentration, it binds to cell surface receptors and forms heptameric pores.
Hemolytic activity: ≥30 units / µg.
Biochemical / Physiological Actions
It stimulates the synthesis of prostaglandins and the phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. The product does not compete with ATP.
Toxicity: Highly toxic (H)
Definition of unit
One unit is defined as the dilution of α-toxin that mediates the 50% lysis of a 5% suspension of rabbit red blood cells.
Lyophilized in 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2.
A single polypeptide chain protein isolated from Staphylococcus aureus strain Wood 46 and purified by a modification of the methods of Harshman, S., et al. (1988) and Hohman R.J. (1988).
After reconstitution, refrigerate (4 ° C). Stock solutions are stable for one week at 4 ° C. Reconstitute with 500 μL of sterile distilled H2O.
Single-band by SDS-PAGE
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